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On December 30, 1967, senior detectives from Scotland Yard sent owners of gambling clubs into a proverbial spin. Anyone operating a roulette wheel that contained the number zero would be prosecuted, they warned. From now on the whirl of numbers would all be reds and blacks – starting with the number one.
This warning 50 years ago followed a judgment in the House of Lords, the country’s highest court of appeal at the time, that the green zero was illegal under gaming law. According to these so-called “law lords”, this was because the chances must be equally favourable to all players in the game.
The Lords’ problem with the zero was that players betting on the ball landing on an individual number were being offered odds of 35/1 – put £1 on number 7 and if it came up you got £35 back plus your stake. But standard British roulette wheels have 37 numbers including zero, so the odds should have been 36/1.
Look, two zeros. Casino Fun, CC BY-SA
This discrepancy gave the house an edge of 2.7% – the proportion of times the ball would randomly fall into the zero slot. (Note that in the US and South America roulette wheels normally have both a zero and double zero, giving them a house edge of just over 5%).